Development: Why Water Turbines are developed?

water turbines occupied an important position among prime movers.Water Turbines are classified as Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbines.
In very ancient days water wheels were developed to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. Basically these water wheels are useful to lift water from well for irrigation purpose. Due to its very slow moving speed, water wheels are not suitable for all types of purposes. Moreover, the hydro power was available mostly in rural and mountainous regions. It was necessary to install mills which are run by water wheels near to the power stations. The main disadvantage of this system was to run prime movers round the clock, even if some of the machines in the mills may remain idle.
To overcome the problems arises from water wheel mechanism, lot of research was conducted by numerous scientists and engineering people. To improve its performance, engineers taken huge efforts. After intensive research Water Turbines were designed. The water turbines developed in those days can be operating under very high water head and higher speed. The highest water head used to operate water turbines is 1765 meters and was used in Austria.
After the First World War, Industrial development takes rapid speed.
For driving machines in industries, electricity is widely used. To cope up with increased demand of electric power, high speed water turbines are designed. Due to rapid increase in the use of electric power, the transmission of electricity from remote hydro power station to the far off places was considered necessary. At this point water turbines occupied an important position among prime movers.
Recent Trends in Electric Power Generation
As the demand of electric power increases day by day, engineers and scientists started to focus on the different ways to generate it. These days electricity is generated by following three ways,
01) Hydroelectric Power
02) Thermal Power
03) Atomic Power
Atomic Power is clean and environment friendly but still there are some problems to generate it in large basis. Mostly Thermal Power Stations are in operation in India but it develops many environmental and health problems. Comparing to these two forms, Hydroelectric Power has more advantages.
Today, the water turbines are taken to be the back bone of electricity, which is considered to be one of the important factors for prosperity of a nation.
Classification of Water Turbines
Advantages of Water Turbines
01) They can work under any water head.
02) They can operate at very high speed.
03) They can be controlled automatically.
04) They have very long working life.
05) They are more efficient and can be easily controlled.
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